The Journal of International
Advanced Otology
Original Article

Reliability and Validity of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory: A Clinical Study of Questionnaires


Department of Otolaryngology, Yueyang Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China


Department of Otolaryngology, Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA

J Int Adv Otol 2022; 18: 522-529
DOI: 10.5152/iao.2022.21503
Read: 799 Downloads: 316 Published: 01 November 2022

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to observe the application of the Chinese version of Tinnitus Handicap Inventory-China in Tinnitus patients and verify its reliability and validity.
METHODS: About 1129 patients with tinnitus as the first complaint were selected as subjects. The patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: exploration group (n = 565), whose data were analyzed with reliability analysis method using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software 19.0, validation group (n = 564), whose data were analyzed with validity analysis method using AMOS21.0.
RESULTS: (1) Reliability test: The Cronbach’s α coefficients of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory-China scale in both groups were 0.94, among which, the Cronbach’s α coefficients of functional factor (F), emotion factor (E), and catastrophic factor (C) in group E were 0.87, 0.90, and 0.78,
respectively. The half-reliability of the 2 components is 0.87. The correlation coefficient between items and the scale in group E and group V is 0.36-0.78 and 0.33-0.77, respectively. (2) Content validity: The Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin value of group E is 0.96, a total of 4 common factors were extracted, and the cumulative interpretation rate is 57.844%. The number of factors with load less than 0.4 on the 4 common factors is only 1 (F24), suggesting that this factor had little significance; the number of factors with load more than 0.4 on the 2 common factors is 8 (F1, E6, F9, C11, F15, E21, E22, and C23), suggesting that patients had different understandings of these 8 questions. (3) Structural validity: The root mean square error of approximation value of the AMOS structural model in group V is 0.065, and the root mean square residual value is 0.114, indicating low fitness; the NC value is 3.353, indicating good fitness of the scale, but it still needed to be simplified.
CONCLUSION: The Chinese version of Tinnitus Handicap Inventory-China has a high reliability when applied in China, but the content validity and structure validity are not high, and the clinical practicability needs to be improved.

Cite this article as: Zhang J, Huo Y, Lui G, Li M, Tyler RS, Ping H. Reliability and validity of the tinnitus handicap inventory: A clinical study of questionnaires. J Int Adv Otol. 2022;18(6):522-529.

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